Codes and Standards‎ > ‎Country & Region‎ > ‎Europe‎ > ‎Euroclasses‎ > ‎

Smoke and Flaming Droplets


Information available 
[1] In the EU classification system for Reaction to Fire, a construction product will be classified as Euroclass A1, A2, B, C, D, E or F depending on its tendency for 'burning'.

[2] The product testing will provide data, represented by the signs s1, s2 or s3, which indicate the tendency to release smoke. Smoke causes over 60% of deaths in fire across the EU. The measurement of smoke release has been put into these 3 broad bands that can be translated as 'a little or no smoke' s1 - 'quite a lot of smoke' s2 - 'substantial smoke release' s3.

[3] Some construction products, like those made of polystyrene, can melt and ignite to form Flaming Droplets. Wooden products, on the other hand, will tend to char before the char falls away as Flaming Particles to expose more material. These 'flaming droplets/particles' will tend to initiate new fires away from the original point of ignition, and must be considered when the products are used horizontally in ceiling or roof applications. The classification system ranks the level of release of Flaming Droplets /particles as d0 [none], d1 [some] and d2 [quite a lot].

The information outlined in [2] and [3] above will be made available as 'additional information'. However it must be declared within the CE Marking label, even if some countries fail to regulate for the production of Smoke or Flaming Droplets/particles in their national guidance.

Bringing all this information together indicates the complete Euroclass for a construction product as defined in BS EN 13501-1, paragraph 12.1 for Reaction to Fire.

The total combinations are:



A2 - s1,d0


A2 - s1,d1


A2 - s1,d2

A2 - s2,d0


A2 - s2,d1


A2 - s2,d2

A2 - s3,d0


A2 - s3,d1


A2 - s3,d2


B - s1,d0


B - s1,d1


B - s1,d2

B - s2,d0


B - s2,d1


B - s2,d2

B - s3,d0


B - s3,d1


B - s3,d2


C - s1,d0


C - s1,d1


C - s1,d2

C - s2,d0


C - s2,d1


C - s2,d2

C - s3,d0


C - s3, d1


C - s3,d2


D - s1,d0


D - s1,d1


D - s1,d2

D - s2,d0


D - s2,d1


D - s2, d2

D - s3,d0


D - s3,d1


D - s3,d2




E - d2





NB. Smoke is naturally assumed to be produced from Euroclass E products and is not measured. A similar assumption is made for Flaming Droplets/particles that are only measured in the categories as above.

Using the Information
For specifiers, it may be critical in the design, hazard and risk evaluation, to assess the difference between, for example, a Class C – s1, d0 product and a B – s3,d2 product. Is the B or C burning data the dominant issue, or is the high smoke production a more vital characteristic?